Faculty Advisor

David Doellinger

Faculty Advisor

Elizabeth Swedo

Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts


Beginning with an agreement between China and Russia in 1881, Mongolia was faced with a series of unfair treaties that prevented them from becoming independent from China. This thesis examines the agreements and treaties made between China, Russia and Mongolia between 1881 and 1924 to illustrate how the Mongolian People’s Republic formed as a direct result of unfavorable diplomatic relations between the three nations. However, due to the wording of these agreements, Russia never acknowledged Mongolia’s autonomy from China making Mongolia's push for independence difficult to achieve. With China facing the Revolution of 1911, Mongolia seized independence only to be stripped of this independence by China in 1919. Key revolutionaries formed two groups that eventually merged in 1920 to form The Mongolian People's Republic. These revolutionaries went into Russia to find aid in pushing the Chinese out of their country again. In 1921, a White Army General Baron Roman von Ungern-Sternberg invaded Urga, driving out the Chinese. China refused to retaliate or act on the behest of the Mongolian people allowing the Soviet Union to act instead. In late 1921 the Soviet Union executed the Baron and liberated Mongolia from both China and Tsarist Russia in one act. With China unwilling to act, they had effectively ceded their influence over Mongolia to the Soviet sphere of influence in which the Soviet Union backed the establishment of the MPR in 1924.

Document Type


Type (DCMI Terms)




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