My source is Vatican I’s “Dogmatic Constitution Pastor aeternus, on the Church of Christ,” which was released by the Vatican Council on 18 July 1870 and codified the doctrines of papal primacy and infallibility. The doctrine of papal primacy declares the pope as the supreme head of the Church, while the infallibility doctrine declares that when the pope speaks “ex cathedra,” he possesses divine infallibility to define doctrines concerning faith and morals.  The doctrines of primacy and infallibility made Catholics look like a threat to the German nation. Because Catholics were perceived as a threat, the German government initiated a Kulturkampf—literally “culture war”—to preserve German unity from the supposed disuniting threat of Catholicism.
 “Vatican I’s Dogmatic Constitution Pastor aeternus, on the Church of Christ.” ewtn.com. Accessed 27 April 2021. https://www.ewtn.com/catholicism/teachings/vatican-is-dogmatic-constitution-pastor-aeternus-on-the-church-of-christ-243
Collver, Lillian, "Preserving Unity: the Threats of Catholicism and National Liberal Support of the Kulturkampf" (2021). Academic Excellence Showcase Proceedings. 294.
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